Amsterdam is a city with a lot of young people and a lot of nightlife.
The most famous clubs are:
Melkweg: next to Plaza Leideplein (Lijbaansgracht 234 A). De Melkweg is situated in what used to be a milk factory (hence it's name - The Milky Way). It has two different rooms that are divided between rock and dance music. It's also very normal for the venue to host concerts and renowned DJs.
Paradiso: Perhaps more young and pop than Melkweg, this club is located on the other side of Plaza Leiseplein (Weteringschans 6-8). The building is an old church that has been re-contextualized. There is a complete Schedule from Wednesday to Sunday including cabarets and other shows.